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Complete Health Indicator Report of Birth Defects: Prevalence of Anencephaly per 10,000 Live Births

Definition

Anencephaly means an infant is born without a skull, with cerebral hemispheres completely missing or reduced to small masses attached to the base of the skull. Prevalence of anencephaly is the number of live-born infants with anencephaly per 10,000 live-born infants. (Live-born infants are infants born with any evidence of life.)

Numerator

Number of live-born infants with anencephaly

Denominator

Number of live-born infants

Data Interpretation Issues

In January 2000, birth defects became a reportable condition in New Mexico; however, birth defects were collected prior to this date. The first year of consistent data is 1998. For anencephaly data, the most recent year of analyzed data is 2011. Data are collected on live births occurring in-state to NM residents. Therefore, live births that occur in NM among out-of-state residents are excluded. Case finding/identification occurs through review of birth and death certificates, hospital discharge diagnoses, records from pediatric specialists and prenatal diagnostic providers. Birth defect cases are ascertained up to age 4; however, the majority of diagnoses are made by age 1.

Why Is This Important?

Birth defects pose a significant public health problem. One in 33 babies is born with a structural birth defect in the United States. Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality and are responsible for considerable morbidity and disability with enormous economic and social costs. Anencephaly is not compatible with life. Infants born with anencephaly die within a few days of birth. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that women of childbearing age increase consumption of the vitamin folic acid to reduce the number of spina bifida and anencephaly cases in the United States. By 1998, <30% of women were following this recommendation. In 2001, researchers from CDC determined that the overall birth prevalence of these two neural tube defects declined 19% after mandatory folic acid fortification.

Healthy People Objective: Reduce occurrence of anencephaly

U.S. Target: 22.1 live births and/or fetal deaths with anencephaly per 100,000 live births

Other Objectives

CDC Environmental Public Health Tracking, Nationally Consistent Data and Measures (EPHT NCDM)

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

Before folic acid fortification, approximately 4,000 pregnancies resulted in 2,500--3,000 births in the United States each year affected by anencephaly or spina bifida.(http://www.cdc.gov/Mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00019479.htm) During 1996--2001 in the US, a 23% decline occurred in neural tube defects (spina bifida and anencephaly combined). Spina bifida declined 24% during this period, and anencephaly declined 21%. The US prevalence of anencephaly from 2004-2006 was 2.06 per 10,000 births. For more information, please see: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/features/birthdefects-keyfindings.html These data come from 14 birth defects surveillance programs: Arkansas, Arizona, California [8-county Central Valley], Colorado, Georgia [5-county metropolitan Atlanta], Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Puerto Rico, Texas, and Utah. Due to variability in the methods used by state birth defects surveillance systems and differences in populations and risk factors, state prevalence estimates may not be directly comparable with national estimates or those of other states.


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Anencephaly - Five Year Average Prevalence per 10,000 Live Births 2006-2011

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NM vs. U.S.YearPrevalance per 10,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 2
New Mexico2006-201021.22.7
New Mexico2007-201121.22.7

Data Notes

New Mexico live-born infants with anencephaly, 2006-2011. The following International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify anencephaly: 740.0 - 740.10. In 1987, CDC put forth a set of 6 digit codes (the sixth digit provides greater specificity for diagnosis) based on the British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases and the ICD-9-CM. If CDC/BPA codes are present, the following were used to identify anencephaly: 740.000 - 740.100.

Data Sources

  • Birth Defects Prevention and Surveillance System (BDPASS), New Mexico Department of Health.
  • Birth Certificate Data, Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics (BVRHS), New Mexico Department of Health.


Prevalence of Anencephaly by County 2006-2011

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confidence limits

CountyPrevalence per 10,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 35
Bernalillo1.60.62.7Rate is statistically unstable.954,812
Catron2.505Rate is statistically unstable.415,759
Chaves5.20.110.4Rate is statistically unstable.47,637
Cibola4.7010Rate is statistically unstable.36,428
Colfax3.909.3Rate is statistically unstable.25,129
Curry1.804.2Rate is statistically unstable.211,435
De Baca3.9011.6Rate is statistically unstable.12,551
Dona Ana12035.6Rate is statistically unstable.1832
Eddy206Rate is statistically unstable.14,978
Grant2.206.6Rate is statistically unstable.14,519
Guadalupe28.2083.3Rate is statistically unstable.1355
Harding9.6028.4Rate is statistically unstable.11,041
Hidalgo4.3012.8Rate is statistically unstable.12,319
Lea5.7016.9Rate is statistically unstable.11,748
Lincoln1.103.2Rate is statistically unstable.19,366
Los Alamos103.1Rate is statistically unstable.19,552
Luna000Rate is statistically unstable.0117
McKinley000Rate is statistically unstable.06,092
Mora000Rate is statistically unstable.0131
Otero000Rate is statistically unstable.02,165
Quay000Rate is statistically unstable.0260
Rio Arriba000Rate is statistically unstable.027
Roosevelt000Rate is statistically unstable.01,281
Sandoval000Rate is statistically unstable.0266
San Juan000Rate is statistically unstable.0610
San Miguel000Rate is statistically unstable.03,806
Santa Fe000Rate is statistically unstable.02,095
Sierra000Rate is statistically unstable.0591
Socorro000Rate is statistically unstable.01,512
Taos000Rate is statistically unstable.02,110
Torrance000Rate is statistically unstable.01,060
Union000Rate is statistically unstable.0181
Valencia00005,871
Missing/unknown000Rate is statistically unstable.02
NM21.42.734166,638

Data Notes

New Mexico live-born infants with anencephaly, 2006-2011. The following International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify anencephaly: 740.0 - 740.10. In 1987, CDC put forth a set of 6 digit codes (the sixth digit provides greater specificity for diagnosis) based on the British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases and the ICD-9-CM. If CDC/BPA codes are present, the following were used to identify anencephaly: 740.000 - 740.100.

Data Sources

  • Birth Defects Prevention and Surveillance System (BDPASS), New Mexico Department of Health.
  • Birth Certificate Data, Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics (BVRHS), New Mexico Department of Health.


Anencephaly: Five Year Counts - Moving 5-Year Totals 2006-2011

::chart - missing::

YearCase Counts
Record Count: 8
2006-201028
2007-201127

Data Notes

New Mexico live-born infants with anencephaly, 2006-2011. The following International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify anencephaly: 740.0 - 740.10. In 1987, CDC put forth a set of 6 digit codes (the sixth digit provides greater specificity for diagnosis) based on the British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases and the ICD-9-CM. If CDC/BPA codes are present, the following were used to identify anencephaly: 740.000 - 740.100.

Data Source

Birth Defects Prevention and Surveillance System (BDPASS), New Mexico Department of Health.

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 07/31/2014, Published on 07/31/2014
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Content updated: Tue, 12 Aug 2014 11:49:04 MDT