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Complete Health Indicator Report of Birth Defects: Prevalence of Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) per 10,000 Live Births

Definition

Down syndrome is a condition in which a baby is born with an extra chromosome. Chromosomes are small "packages" of genes in the body. They determine how a baby's body forms during pregnancy and how, as the baby grows in the womb and after birth, the baby's body functions. Normally, a baby is born with 46 chromosomes. Babies born with Down syndrome have an extra copy of one of these chromosomes. This extra copy changes the body's and brain's development and causes mental and physical problems for the baby. Prevalence of Down syndrome is calculated in two ways: 1) the number of live-born infants with Down syndrome to mothers less than 35 years of age per 10,000 live-born infants and 2) the number of live-born infants with Down syndrome to mothers 35 years of age or older per 10,000 live-born infants. (Live-born infants are the infants born with any evidence of life).

Numerator

Number of live-born infants with Down syndrome to mothers in a given age group at delivery.

Denominator

Total number of live-born infants to mothers in a given age group at delivery.

Data Interpretation Issues

In January 2000, birth defects became a reportable condition in New Mexico; however, birth defects were collected prior to this date. The first year of consistent data is 1998. However, data for Down syndrome were not collected consistently until 2004. For Down syndrome data, the most recent year of analyzed data is 2011. Data are collected on live births occurring in-state to NM residents. Therefore, live births that occur in NM among out-of-state residents are excluded. Case finding/identification occurs through review of birth and death certificates, hospital discharge diagnoses, records from pediatric specialists and prenatal diagnostic providers. Birth defect cases are ascertained up to age 4; however, the majority of diagnoses are made by age 1.

Why Is This Important?

Birth defects pose a significant public health problem. One in 33 babies is born with a structural birth defect in the United States. Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality and responsible for considerable morbidity with enormous economic and social costs. Usually, mental development and physical development are slower in people with Down syndrome than in those without it. Babies and adults with Down syndrome can have physical problems, as well as intellectual disabilities. Some physical problems associated with Down syndrome include: -A birth defect of the heart -Stomach problems, such as a blocked small intestine -Celiac disease, a digestive disease that damages the small intestine so that nutrients from food are not absorbed well -Problems with memory, concentration, and judgment, often called dementia -Hearing problems -Eye problems, such as cataracts or trouble seeing objects that are close by (far-sighted) -Thyroid problems -Skeletal problems A person with Down syndrome can have an IQ in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disabilities. He or she also might have delayed language development and difficulties with physical coordination.

Other Objectives

CDC Environmental Public Health Tracking, Nationally Consistent Data and Measures (EPHT NCDM)

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

The national prevalence of Down syndrome among births from 2004-2006 is 14.47 per 10,000 births (adjusted for maternal age). These data come from 14 birth defects surveillance programs: Arkansas, Arizona, California [8-county Central Valley], Colorado, Georgia [5-county metropolitan Atlanta], Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Puerto Rico, Texas, and Utah. For more information, please see: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/features/birthdefects-keyfindings.html


Related Indicators

Risk Factors

Maternal age



Graphical Data Views

Down Syndrome Births to Mothers Under Age 35 at Delivery by County 2006-2011

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

CountyPrevalence per 10,000 Live Births to Mothers Less than 35 Years of age at DeliveryLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 35
Bernalillo8.15.610.73947,969
Catron000Rate is statistically unstable.0112
Chaves1.805.2Rate is statistically unstable.15,718
Cibola8.5020.2Rate is statistically unstable.22,364
Colfax000Rate is statistically unstable.0769
Curry4.3010.2Rate is statistically unstable.24,689
De Baca000Rate is statistically unstable.0122
Dona Ana11.25.716.61614,346
Eddy4.7011.2Rate is statistically unstable.24,250
Grant5014.8Rate is statistically unstable.11,999
Guadalupe41.30122.2Rate is statistically unstable.1242
Harding000Rate is statistically unstable.025
Hidalgo000Rate is statistically unstable.0328
Lea1.604.9Rate is statistically unstable.16,077
Lincoln17.4041.4Rate is statistically unstable.21,151
Los Alamos000Rate is statistically unstable.0781
Luna000Rate is statistically unstable.02,160
McKinley8.91.816Rate is statistically unstable.66,733
Mora000Rate is statistically unstable.0240
Otero10.51.319.6Rate is statistically unstable.54,780
Quay000Rate is statistically unstable.0577
Rio Arriba11.50.222.8Rate is statistically unstable.43,471
Roosevelt000Rate is statistically unstable.01,648
Sandoval9.9316.8Rate is statistically unstable.88,055
San Juan8.6314.2Rate is statistically unstable.910,494
San Miguel000Rate is statistically unstable.01,922
Santa Fe50.19.9Rate is statistically unstable.48,000
Sierra000Rate is statistically unstable.0546
Socorro21.6046Rate is statistically unstable.31,390
Taos000Rate is statistically unstable.01,791
Torrance000Rate is statistically unstable.0976
Union000Rate is statistically unstable.0167
Valencia11.32.220.365,330
Missing/unknown000Rate is statistically unstable.01
NM7.56.18.9112149,223

Data Notes

New Mexico live-born infants with Down syndrome, 2006-2011. The following International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify Down syndrome: 758.0. In 1987, CDC put forth a set of 6 digit codes (the sixth digit provides greater specificity for diagnosis) based on the British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases and the ICD-9-CM. If CDC/BPA codes are present, the following were used to identify Down syndrome: 758.000 - 740.090.


Down Syndrome Births to Mothers Over Age 35 at Delivery by County 2006-2011

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

CountyPrevalence per 10,000 Live Births to Mothers 35 Years of age and Older at DeliveryLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 35
Bernalillo52.635.569.8366,837
Catron000Rate is statistically unstable.05
Chaves26.7079.1Rate is statistically unstable.1374
Cibola000Rate is statistically unstable.0187
Colfax000Rate is statistically unstable.063
Curry69.20164.8Rate is statistically unstable.2289
De Baca000Rate is statistically unstable.09
Dona Ana42.58.676.5Rate is statistically unstable.61,411
Eddy000Rate is statistically unstable.0269
Grant60.20178Rate is statistically unstable.1166
Guadalupe000Rate is statistically unstable.018
Harding000Rate is statistically unstable.02
Hidalgo000Rate is statistically unstable.027
Lea000Rate is statistically unstable.0350
Lincoln153.80365.4Rate is statistically unstable.2130
Los Alamos76.90183.1Rate is statistically unstable.2260
Luna000Rate is statistically unstable.0157
McKinley22.1052.8Rate is statistically unstable.2904
Mora000Rate is statistically unstable.026
Otero000Rate is statistically unstable.0349
Quay000Rate is statistically unstable.033
Rio Arriba59.70142.2Rate is statistically unstable.2335
Roosevelt1000295Rate is statistically unstable.1100
Sandoval22.9048.8Rate is statistically unstable.31,311
San Juan42.50.984.1Rate is statistically unstable.4941
San Miguel000Rate is statistically unstable.0173
Santa Fe19.3041.2Rate is statistically unstable.31,552
Sierra000Rate is statistically unstable.045
Socorro820242Rate is statistically unstable.1122
Taos31.4092.7Rate is statistically unstable.1319
Torrance000Rate is statistically unstable.083
Union000Rate is statistically unstable.014
Valencia55.60118.23540
Missing/unknown000Rate is statistically unstable.01
NM40.230.849.67017,402

Data Notes

New Mexico live-born infants with Down syndrome, 2006-2011. The following International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify Down syndrome: 758.0. In 1987, CDC put forth a set of 6 digit codes (the sixth digit provides greater specificity for diagnosis) based on the British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases and the ICD-9-CM. If CDC/BPA codes are present, the following were used to identify Down syndrome: 758.000 - 740.090.

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 07/31/2014, Published on 07/31/2014
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Content updated: Tue, 12 Aug 2014 11:49:04 MDT