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Complete Health Indicator Report of Birth Defects: Prevalence of Hypospadias per 10,000 Live Male Births

Definition

Hypospadias is a birth defect in which the opening of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) is located on the underside of the penis or on the perineum (area between the genitals and the anus). The corresponding defect in females is rare. Prevalence of hypospadias is the number of live-born infants with hypospadias per 10,000 live-born male infants. (Live-born infants are the infants born with any evidence of life).

Numerator

Number of live-born infants with hypospadias.

Denominator

Number of live-born male infants.

Data Interpretation Issues

In January 2000, birth defects became a reportable condition in New Mexico; however, birth defects were collected prior to this date. The first year of consistent data is 1998. However, data for hypospadias were not collected consistently until 2004. The most recent year of analyzed data is 2011. Data are collected on live births occurring in-state to NM residents. Therefore, live births that occur in NM among out-of-state residents are excluded. Case finding/identification occurs through review of birth and death certificates, hospital discharge diagnoses, records from pediatric specialists and prenatal diagnostic providers. Birth defect cases are ascertained up to age 4; however, the majority of diagnoses are made by age 1.

Why Is This Important?

Birth defects pose a significant public health problem. One in 33 babies is born with a structural birth defect in the United States. Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality and responsible for considerable morbidity with enormous economic and social costs. Boys with hypospadias can sometimes have a curved penis. They could have problems with abnormal spraying of urine and might have to sit to urinate. In some cases boys with hypospadias can also have a testicle that has not fully descended into the scrotum. If hypospadias is not treated it can lead to problems later in life, such as difficulty performing sexual intercourse or difficulty urinating while standing. Treatment for hypospadias depends on the type of defect the boy has. Most cases of hypospadias will need surgery to correct the defect. If surgery is needed, it is usually done when the boy is between the ages of 3 and 18 months old.

Other Objectives

CDC Environmental Public Health Tracking, Nationally Consistent Data and Measures (EPHT NCDM)

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

It is estimated that each year about 5 baby boys out of every 1,000 born in the United States (or 50 per 10,000 male births) are born with hypospadias (Paulozzi LJ, Erickson JD, Jackson RJ. Hypospadias trends in two US surveillance systems. Pediatrics 1997; 100:831-834). Due to variability in the methods used by state birth defects surveillance systems and differences in populations and risk factors, state prevalence estimates may not be directly comparable with national estimates or those of other states.


Graphical Data Views

Hypospadias - Five Year Average Prevalence per 10,000 Live Male Births 2006-2011

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NM vs. U.S.YearPrevalence per 10,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 2
New Mexico2006-201030.726.7334.8
New Mexico2007-201136.231.740.6

Data Notes

New Mexico live-born infants with hypospadias, 2006-2011. The following International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify hypospadias: 752.61. In 1987, CDC put forth a set of 6 digit codes (the sixth digit provides greater specificity for diagnosis) based on the British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases and the ICD-9-CM. If CDC/BPA codes are present, the following were used to identify hypospadias: 752.600, 752.605, 752.606, 752.607, 752.625, 752.626, 752.627.


Prevalence of Hypospadias by County 2006-2011

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confidence limits

CountyPrevalence per 10,000 Live Male BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 35
Bernalillo52.44460.914728,025
Catron000Rate is statistically unstable.065
Chaves47.523.571.6153,155
Cibola39.44.973.9Rate is statistically unstable.51,268
Colfax460109.6Rate is statistically unstable.2435
Curry8019Rate is statistically unstable.22,515
De Baca149.20439.6Rate is statistically unstable.167
Dona Ana13.85.621.9Rate is statistically unstable.117,979
Eddy21.42.740.1Rate is statistically unstable.52,339
Grant44.65.683.5Rate is statistically unstable.51,122
Guadalupe000Rate is statistically unstable.0139
Harding000Rate is statistically unstable.013
Hidalgo000Rate is statistically unstable.0173
Lea3.109.1Rate is statistically unstable.13,245
Lincoln000Rate is statistically unstable.0656
Los Alamos57.70122.8Rate is statistically unstable.3520
Luna16.5039.3Rate is statistically unstable.21,213
McKinley10.30.220.3Rate is statistically unstable.43,896
Mora78.70232.5Rate is statistically unstable.1127
Otero11.5024.5Rate is statistically unstable.32,606
Quay000Rate is statistically unstable.0331
Rio Arriba21.60.442.7Rate is statistically unstable.41,854
Roosevelt32.8069.8Rate is statistically unstable.3916
Sandoval44.225.463.1214,746
San Juan20.6932.3125,817
San Miguel19.3046Rate is statistically unstable.21,037
Santa Fe26.812.341.4134,845
Sierra70.90168.9Rate is statistically unstable.2282
Socorro39.8084.8Rate is statistically unstable.3753
Taos46.15.886.5Rate is statistically unstable.51,084
Torrance37.4089.3Rate is statistically unstable.2534
Union000Rate is statistically unstable.095
Valencia39.317.161.5123,052
Missing/unknown000Rate is statistically unstable.01
NM33.729.837.628684,905

Data Notes

New Mexico live-born infants with hypospadias, 2006-2011. The following International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify hypospadias: 752.61. In 1987, CDC put forth a set of 6 digit codes (the sixth digit provides greater specificity for diagnosis) based on the British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases and the ICD-9-CM. If CDC/BPA codes are present, the following were used to identify hypospadias: 752.600, 752.605, 752.606, 752.607, 752.625, 752.626, 752.627.


Hypospadias: Five Year Counts - Moving 5-Year Totals 2006-2011

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YearCase Counts
Record Count: 2
2006-2010221
2007-2011254

Data Notes

New Mexico live-born infants with hypospadias, 2006-2011. The following International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify hypospadias: 752.61. In 1987, CDC put forth a set of 6 digit codes (the sixth digit provides greater specificity for diagnosis) based on the British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases and the ICD-9-CM. If CDC/BPA codes are present, the following were used to identify hypospadias: 752.600, 752.605, 752.606, 752.607, 752.625, 752.626, 752.627.

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 07/31/2014, Published on 07/31/2014
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Content updated: Tue, 12 Aug 2014 11:49:04 MDT