DefinitionHypospadias is a birth defect in which the opening of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) is located on the underside of the penis or on the perineum (area between the genitals and the anus). The corresponding defect in females is rare.
Prevalence of hypospadias is the number of live-born infants with hypospadias per 10,000 live-born male infants. (Live-born infants are the infants born with any evidence of life).
NumeratorNumber of live-born infants with hypospadias.
DenominatorNumber of live-born male infants.
Data Interpretation IssuesIn January 2000, birth defects became a reportable condition in New Mexico; however, birth defects were collected prior to this date. The first year of consistent data is 1998. However, data for hypospadias were not collected consistently until 2004. The most recent year of analyzed data is 2011.
Data are collected on live births occurring in-state to NM residents. Therefore, live births that occur in NM among out-of-state residents are excluded.
Case finding/identification occurs through review of birth and death certificates, hospital discharge diagnoses, records from pediatric specialists and prenatal diagnostic providers.
Birth defect cases are ascertained up to age 4; however, the majority of diagnoses are made by age 1.
Why Is This Important?Birth defects pose a significant public health problem. One in 33 babies is born with a structural birth defect in the United States. Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality and responsible for considerable morbidity with enormous economic and social costs.
Boys with hypospadias can sometimes have a curved penis. They could have problems with abnormal spraying of urine and might have to sit to urinate. In some cases boys with hypospadias can also have a testicle that has not fully descended into the scrotum. If hypospadias is not treated it can lead to problems later in life, such as difficulty performing sexual intercourse or difficulty urinating while standing.
Treatment for hypospadias depends on the type of defect the boy has. Most cases of hypospadias will need surgery to correct the defect.
If surgery is needed, it is usually done when the boy is between the ages of 3 and 18 months old.
Other ObjectivesCDC Environmental Public Health Tracking, Nationally Consistent Data and Measures (EPHT NCDM)
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?It is estimated that each year about 5 baby boys out of every 1,000 born in the United States (or 50 per 10,000 male births) are born with hypospadias (Paulozzi LJ, Erickson JD, Jackson RJ. Hypospadias trends in two US surveillance systems. Pediatrics 1997; 100:831-834).
Due to variability in the methods used by state birth defects surveillance systems and differences in populations and risk factors, state prevalence estimates may not be directly comparable with national estimates or those of other states.